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The cupola of brunelleschi – filippo brunelleschi biography

The cupola of brunelleschi – filippo brunelleschi biography

When, con 1420, Filippo Brunelleschi was nominated superintendent of the construction of the cupola of the Florentine cathedral of Santa Maria del Raccolta, the lines along which the construction was puro be carried out had already been determined by what had been done previously (Arnolfo, Talenti)

The diameter of the inner span (m. ) is close sicuro the maximum limit for any kind of masonry dome. From the times of the Pantheon there had been in nessun caso examples of cupolas of such size. Faith sopra these structures had been seriously undermined by the collapse, mediante 1346, of the dome of Hagia Sophia mediante Constantinople. Durante 1400 the Florentines had had puro reinforce the structures of the Baptistery which had shown signs of giving way.

Instead of recuperating precedent techniques, Brunelleschi invented a technique based on his knowledge of the «way of building» of the Romans as well as medieval (eastern) examples which he put at the service of verso new concept and new kinds of technical, cultural, aesthetic problems, involved per the realization of the cupola. Basically the construction of the dome depended on the use of a building technique courtaud of avoiding any dangerous discontinuity durante the masonry (27,000 tons) and which would be able puro circumvent the enormous problems involved per constructing a traditional wooden armature of the necessary dimensions. Brunelleschi’s structure of bricks laid durante herringbone courses consisted of raising the wall con rings, each containing vertical elements for bonding the successive ring. The cupola was thus built as per self supporting growing form.

Sopra their internal tension, the thrust and dynamic form (pointed arch and elliptical sector) engender verso calculated equilibrium, per cupola that hovers and is suspended over the city, the result of the balance of all the forces

The dome is surprisingly modern: per this double shell, the lighter exterior cupola protects the inner cupola from the elements, while the two rete di emittenti together thanks to the powerful connecting ribs. The detachment from the figurative solutions of Gothic architecture is evident particularly on the outside durante the refusal of multiple forces (free standing spires, etc.), mediante the rigor with which the convergence of the forces upwards is pursued, entrusting the formal solution sicuro verso formidable synthesis of continuous lines and accessory surfaces resulting per unity and free from any need onesto adapt sicuro the more articulated and minute design of the structure underneath.

The first powerful expression of verso conscious synthesis of two cultural worlds, Greek and Gothic, the cupola can mediante the end be defined as verso sensitive diaphragm stretched between an external and an internal space, a diaphragm between one space and another. The city is mai longer verso framework marked by the emergence of vertical points of reference (towers and campanili): the cupola, mediante its size and form, stands out and dominates everything else. The towers and the campanili (including Giotto’s) all now relate preciso each other as per result of their relationship to the cupola which hovers between rooftops and sky at the center of the urban system and automatically become subordinate elements per a general plan.

The full meaning of this urban masterpiece, the cupola is beautifully expressed in Leon Battista Alberti’s splendid, synthetic definition con the context of the dedication of his treatise Della Saldo puro Brunelleschi: «rising above the skies, ample onesto cover with its shadow all the Tuscan people». «Rising above» on the one hand expresses the meaning of the tension in the generating line chosen for the ribs, on the other the fact that the cupola is not dominated by the universal space but creates verso space of its own which establishes all rapports and measures with respect to itself. «Ample» expresses the fundamental qualification of distension and circularity of the hovering cupola, while on the other hand with «ample to» it immediately leads esatto the concept mediante which the size of this urban structure is seen con relation sicuro the territory. Moreover, the contrast established between the two terms («rising above» – «ample puro») expresses with marvelous conciseness the solution of all the forces, all the structures, all the equilibriums, of all the proportions both within itself and durante relationship to the city, all the technical and structural problems, mediante the absolute abstraction and sopra the tension of the line of its cross section, etc https://datingranking.net/it/colombiancupid-review/. Lastly, Alberti’s words esaurimento the fact that the new formal dimensions also correspond to the new political dimension of the city.

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